What is “running”?
A: Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
Running is a type of gait characterized by what?
A: An aerial phase in which all feet are above the ground (though there are exceptions).
This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is
A: In contact with the ground.
The term running can refer to any of a variety of what?
A: Speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting.
Running in humans is associated with improved
A: Life expectancy.
Competitive running grew out of what?
A: Religious festivals in various areas.
Records of competitive racing date back to what?
A: The Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 BCE and 1171 BCE.
When did the first recorded Olympic Games take place?
A: In 776 BCE.
Running has been described as the world's what?
A: Most accessible sport.
It is thought that human running evolved when?
A: At least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs.
Early humans most likely developed into endurance
runners from what?
A: The practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee.
Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in
A: Greece, Egypt, Asia, and the East African Rift in Africa.
The Tailteann Games, an Irish sporting festival in
honor of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to when?
A: 1829 BCE, and is one of the earliest records of competitive running.
The origins of the Olympics and Marathon running are
shrouded by myth and legend, though the first recorded games took place
A: In 776 BCE.
Running gait can be divided into what two phases in
regard to the lower extremity?
A: Stance and swing.
These can be further divided into what?
A: Absorption, propulsion, initial swing and terminal swing.
Due to the continuous nature of running gait, no
certain point is assumed to be what?
A: The beginning.
Footstrike occurs when a plantar portion of the foot
A: Makes initial contact with the ground.
Common footstrike types include what?
A: Forefoot, midfoot and heel strike types.
These are characterized by what?
A: Initial contact of the ball of the foot, ball and heel of the foot simultaneously and heel of the foot respectively.
During this time the hip joint is undergoing what?
A: Extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase.
For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be
flexed upon what?
A: Footstrike and the ankle should be slightly in front of the body.
Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from
initial contact are what?
A: Attenuated throughout the lower extremity.
Midstance is defined as what?
A: The time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk, pelvis and hips.
It is at this point that what begins to occur?
Propulsion continues until what?
A: The leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs.
Leaning forward places a runner's center of mass on the
front part of the foot, which avoids what?
A: Landing on the heel and facilitates the use of the spring mechanism of the foot.
While upright posture is essential, a runner should
A: A relaxed frame and use their core to keep posture upright and stable.
This helps prevent injury as long as the body is what?
A: Neither rigid nor tense.
The most common running mistakes are what?
A: Tilting the chin up and scrunching shoulders.